Geography of Bhutan


A landlocked country, Bhutan majorly exhibits variation in the mountainous terrain. The topography of this land of thunder-dragon is rugged naturally and exciting. Stretching over 46,500 sq. km area, Bhutan features fascinating biological diversity. Bordered by Tibet on the northwest and north, China in the north and India in the south, east and west direction, the country physical features are dominated by the dominant mountains. The entire landscape in mountainous here and the altitude ranges vary from 100 m to the 7541 m (Gangkhar Puensum peak).

Based on these variations, the geography can be seen under the categories – The Greater Himalayas of North, the hills and valleys of the inner Himalaya; and the foothills and plains of the south. The Greater Himalayas represent the heights of the country. Occupying northern and western borders, most of these mountains are unexplored and even unnamed as well. For they are quite tough to trek. Most of the region is impenetrable. Nearly 20% of the country is snow clad, and that area comes under this region. Glaciers are also a part of this snowy region.

Inner Himalaya region lies towards south of the Great Himalayas. This region is made up of valleys and forested hill sides and covers up the largest part of Bhutan. The capital, Thimpu is also a part of this region. It also has fast flowing rivers originating from Himalayas. Foothills and plains of the south Bhutan is the region where most of the rice farming is done.


Rich in exotic Himalayan flora featuring low shrubs, dwarf rhododendrons and flowering plants, the country is a natural paradise. Also, the virgin natural forests here provide a thriving backdrop for diverse animals to flourish. Around 200 species of mammals and over 600 species of birds keep the ecosystem alive.

Area – 46,500 sq. km

Location – Surrounded by Tibet in northwest and north, China in North and India - on the east by Arunachal Pradesh; on the south by Assam and West Bengal; and on the west by Sikkim.

People – The country has four main ethnic groups - Ngalop of western and northern Bhutan; Sharchop of eastern Bhutan; Lhotshampa of southern Bhutan; and Bhutanese tribal and aboriginal peoples living in villages spread throughout Bhutan.

Language – Dzongkha is the national language; travel trade people understand and speak English as well.

Safety – Tourists consider Bhutan as a safe destination, but guide assistance is suggested.

Religion – Bhutan is a Buddhist country. Hinduism, Christianity and Islam is also followed.

Political System – Constitutional Monarchy.

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